- Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
- Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879 and died on 8 April 1955 (aged 76) in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.
- He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".
- He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.
- He dealt with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules.
- In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.
- Except for one year in Prague, Einstein lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, during which time he renounced his German citizenship in 1896, then received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in Zürich in 1900.
- Einstein taught theoretical physics at Zurich between 1912 and 1914, before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
- In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany.
- Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers and more than 150 non-scientific works. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".